PUBLICATIONS RESULTING FROM NCANDA DATA

2018

Zhao Q, Kwon D, Pohl KM (In press). A Riemannian Framework for Longitudinal Analysis of Resting-State Functional Connectivity. Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention, Springer-Verlag, Lecture Notes in Computer Science.

Even though the number of longitudinal resting-state-fMRI studies is increasing, accurately characterizing the changes in functional connectivity across visits is a largely unexplored topic. To improve characterization, we design a Riemannian framework that represents the functional connectivity pattern of a subject at a visit as a point on a Riemannian manifold. Geodesic regression across the ‘sample' points of a subject on that manifold then defines the longitudinal trajectory of their connectivity pattern. To identify group differences specific to regions of interest (ROI), we map the resulting trajectories of all subjects to a common tangent space via the Lie group action. We account for the uncertainty in choosing the common tangent space by proposing a test procedure based on the theory of latent p-values. Unlike existing methods, our proposed approach identifies sex differences across 246 subjects, each of them being characterized by three rs-fMRI scans.

Park SH, Zhang Y, Kwon D, Pfefferbaum A, Sullivan EV, Pohl KM (2018). Alcohol use effect on adolescent brain development revealed by simultaneously removing confounding factors, identifying morphometric patterns, and classifying individuals. Scientific Reports 8: 8297. PMCID: PMC5974423

Group analysis of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) metrics frequently employs generalized additive models (GAM) to remove contributions of confounding factors before identifying cohort specific characteristics. For example, the National Consortium on Alcohol and NeuroDevelopment in Adolescence (NCANDA) used such an approach to identify effects of alcohol misuse on the developing brain. Here, we hypothesized that considering confounding factors before group analysis removes information relevant for distinguishing adolescents with drinking history from those without. To test this hypothesis, we introduce a machine-learning model that identifies cohort-specific, neuromorphometric patterns by simultaneously training a GAM and generic classifier on macrostructural MRI and microstructural diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) metrics and compare it to more traditional group analysis and machine-learning approaches. Using a baseline NCANDA MR dataset (N = 705), the proposed machine learning approach identified a pattern of eight brain regions unique to adolescents who misuse alcohol. Classifying high-drinking adolescents was more accurate with that pattern than using regions identified with alternative approaches. The findings of the joint model approach thus were (1) impartial to confounding factors; (2) relevant to drinking behaviors; and (3) in concurrence with the alcohol literature. Read full article.

Boyd SJ, Sceeles EM, Tapert SF, Brown SA, Nagel B (2018). Reciprocal relations between positive alcohol expectancies and peer use on adolescent drinking: an accelerated autoregressive cross-lagged model using the NCANDA sample. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors Jul 2. PMID: 29963874

Positive alcohol expectancies (PAE) and associating with drinking peers are reliable predictors of adolescent alcohol use. Knowledge of when, and for whom these risk factors are most influential could enhance intervention effectiveness. Reciprocal relations between PAE, and adolescent and peer alcohol use were examined between the ages of 13-18 in a sample (N=566; 50% female) from the National Consortium on Alcohol and NeuroDevelopment in Adolescence (NCANDA), as well as sex differences in these associations. Associating with drinking peers prospectively predicted more frequent alcohol use for both sexes, although peer socialization was evident earlier for girls compared to boys. Higher PAE influenced later drinking in mid-adolescence, from age 14 to 16, for boys only. PAE influenced peer group selection for both sexes, although the influence was evident earlier in boys than girls. The relative impact of environmental risk factors for problematic alcohol use may vary over time and across developmental periods. These results suggest that prevention and treatment efforts for adolescent drinking can be improved by targeting age-appropriate risk factors. Early adolescent interventions may be best served by minimizing involvement with drinking peers and correcting normative beliefs of peer use. Among adolescent girls, early interventions focused on reducing peer influence may be most effective. Prevention and treatment programs aimed at addressing PAE would likely prove more effective for boys in mid- to late-adolescence. Read more.

Goldstone A, Willoughby AR, de Zambotti M, Franzen PL, Kwon D, Pohl KM, Pfefferbaum A, Sullivan EV, Müller-Oehring EM, Prouty D, Hasler BP, Clark DB, Colrain IM, Baker FC (2018). The mediating role of cortical thickness and gray matter volume on sleep slow wave activity during adolescence. Brain Structure & Function Mar 223(2): 669-685. PMCID: PMC5828920

During the course of adolescence, reductions occur in cortical thickness and gray matter (GM) volume, along with a 65% reduction in slow-wave (delta) activity during sleep (SWA) but empirical data linking these structural brain and functional sleep differences, is lacking. Here, we investigated specifically whether age-related differences in cortical thickness and GM volume and cortical thickness accounted for the typical age-related difference in slow-wave (delta) activity (SWA) during sleep. 132 healthy participants (age 12-21 years) from the National Consortium on Alcohol and NeuroDevelopment in Adolescence study were included in this cross-sectional analysis of baseline polysomnographic, electroencephalographic, and magnetic resonance imaging data. By applying mediation models, we identified a large, direct effect of age on SWA in adolescents, which explained 45% of the variance in ultra-SWA (0.3-1 Hz) and 52% of the variance in delta-SWA (1 to <4 Hz), where SWA was lower in older adolescents, as has been reported previously. In addition, we provide evidence that the structure of several, predominantly frontal, and parietal brain regions, partially mediated this direct age effect, models including measures of brain structure explained an additional 3-9% of the variance in ultra-SWA and 4-5% of the variance in delta-SWA, with no differences between sexes. Replacing age with pubertal status in models produced similar results. As reductions in GM volume and cortical thickness likely indicate synaptic pruning and myelination, these results suggest that diminished SWA in older, more mature adolescents may largely be driven by such processes within a number of frontal and parietal brain regions. Read full article.

de Zambotti M, Javitz H, Franzen P, Brumback T, Clark D, Colrain I, Baker F (2018). Sex- and age-dependent differences in autonomic nervous system functioning in adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health Feb 62(2): 184-190.PMID: 29198773

Purpose: We assessed sex- and age-dependent differences in a cross-sectional analysis of cardiac autonomic nervous system (ANS) regulation during sleep in adolescents. Methods: Nocturnal heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) metrics, reflecting ANS functioning, were analyzed across the night and within undisturbed rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM sleep in 149 healthy adolescents (12-22 years; 67 female) from the National Consortium on Alcohol and Neurodevelopment in Adolescence. Results: Nocturnal HR was slower in older, more pubertally advanced boys than in younger boys. In girls, HR did not vary according to age or maturity, although overall HRV and vagal modulation declined with age. Although younger boys and girls had similar HR, the male-female HR difference increased by ~2.4 bpm every year (p < .01, higher in older girls). Boys and girls showed expected increases in total HRV across the night but this within-night "recovery" was blunted in girls compared with boys (p < .05). Also, the non-REM and REM difference in HR was greater in girls (p < .01). Models exploring a role of covariates (sleep, mood, reproductive hormones, activity) in influencing HR and HRV showed few significant effects, apart from sedentary activity (higher in older girls), which partially mediated the sex × age interaction in HR. Conclusions: Sex-related differences in cardiac ANS function emerge during adolescence. The extent to which sex-age divergences in ANS function are adaptive or reflect underlying sex-specific vulnerability for the development of psychopathology and other health conditions in adolescence needs to be determined. Read full article.

Pfefferbaum A, Kwon D, Brumback T, Thompson WK, Cummins K, Tapert SF, Brown SA, Colrain IM, Baker FC, Prouty D, De Bellis MD, Clark DB, Nagel BJ, Chu W, Park SH, Sullivan EV.(2018). Altered Brain Development Trajectories in Adolescents After Initiating Drinking. American Journal of Psychiatry. Apr 175(4): 370-380. PMID: 29084454

Objective: The authors sought evidence for altered adolescent brain growth trajectory associated with moderate and heavy alcohol use in a large national, multisite, prospective study of adolescents before and after initiation of appreciable alcohol use. Method: This study examined 483 adolescents (ages 12-21) before initiation of drinking and 1 and 2 years later. At the 2-year assessment, 356 participants continued to meet the study's no/low alcohol consumption entry criteria, 65 had initiated moderate drinking, and 62 had initiated heavy drinking. MRI was used to quantify regional cortical and white matter volumes. Percent change per year (slopes) in adolescents who continued to meet no/low criteria served as developmental control trajectories against which to compare those who initiated moderate or heavy drinking. Results: In no/low drinkers, gray matter volume declined throughout adolescence and slowed in many regions in later adolescence. Complementing gray matter declines, white matter regions grew at faster rates at younger ages and slowed toward young adulthood. Youths who initiated heavy drinking exhibited an accelerated frontal cortical gray matter trajectory, divergent from the norm. Although significant effects on trajectories were not observed in moderate drinkers, their intermediate position between no/low and heavy drinkers suggests a dose effect. Neither marijuana co-use nor baseline volumes contributed significantly to the alcohol effect. Conclusions: Initiation of drinking during adolescence, with or without marijuana co-use, disordered normal brain growth trajectories. Factors possibly contributing to abnormal cortical volume trajectories include peak consumption in the past year and family history of alcoholism. Read full article.

Müller-Oehring EM, Kwon D, Nagel BJ, Sullivan EV, Chu W, Rohlfing T, Prouty D, Nichols BN, Poline JB, Tapert SF, Brown SA, Cummins K, Brumback T, Colrain IM, Baker FC, De Bellis MD, Voyvodic JT, Clark DB, Pfefferbaum A, Pohl KM. (2018). Influences of age, sex, and moderate alcohol drinking on the intrinsic functional architecture of adolescent brains. Cerebral Cortex. 1-15. PMID: 28168274

The transition from adolescent to adult cognition and emotional control requires neurodevelopmental maturation likely involving intrinsic functional networks (IFNs). Normal neurodevelopment may be vulnerable to disruption from environmental insult such as alcohol consumption commonly initiated during adolescence. To test potential disruption to IFN maturation, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) in 581 no-to-low alcohol-consuming and 117 moderate-to-high-drinking youth. Functional seed-to-voxel connectivity analysis assessed age, sex, and moderate alcohol drinking on default-mode, executive-control, salience, reward, and emotion networks and tested cognitive and motor coordination correlates of network connectivity. Among no-to-low alcohol-consuming adolescents, executive-control frontolimbicstriatal connectivity was stronger in older than younger adolescents, particularly boys, and predicted better ability in balance, memory, and impulse control. Connectivity patterns in moderate-to-high-drinking youth were tested mainly in late adolescence when drinking was initiated. Implicated was the emotion network with attenuated connectivity to default-mode network regions. Our cross-sectional rs-fMRI findings from this large cohort of adolescents show sexual dimorphism in connectivity and suggest neurodevelopmental rewiring toward stronger and spatially more distributed executive-control networking in older than younger adolescents. Functional network rewiring in moderate-to-high-drinking adolescents may impede maturation of affective and self-reflection systems and obscure maturation of complex social and emotional behaviors. Read full article.

2017

Clark DB, Chung T, Martin CS, Hasler BP, Fitzgerald DH, Luna B, Brown SA, Tapert SF, Brumback T, Cummins K, Pfefferbaum A, Sullivan EV, Pohl KM, Colrain IM, Baker FC, De Bellis MD, Nooner KB and Nagel BJ.(2017). Adolescent Executive Dysfunction in Daily Life: Relationships to Risks, Brain Structure and Substance Use. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience 11:223. PMCID: PMC5694208

During adolescence, problems reflecting cognitive, behavioral and affective dysregulation, such as inattention and emotional dyscontrol, have been observed to be associated with substance use disorder (SUD) risks and outcomes. Prior studies have typically been with small samples, and have typically not included comprehensive measurement of executive dysfunction domains. The relationships of executive dysfunction in daily life with performance based testing of cognitive skills and structural brain characteristics, thought to be the basis for executive functioning, have not been definitively determined. The aims of this study were to determine the relationships between executive dysfunction in daily life, measured by the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF), cognitive skills and structural brain characteristics, and SUD risks, including a global SUD risk indicator, sleep quality, and risky alcohol and cannabis use. In addition to bivariate relationships, multivariate models were tested. The subjects (n = 817; ages 12 through 21) were participants in the National Consortium on Alcohol and Neurodevelopment in Adolescence (NCANDA) study. The results indicated that executive dysfunction was significantly related to SUD risks, poor sleep quality, risky alcohol use and cannabis use, and was not significantly related to cognitive skills or structural brain characteristics. In multivariate models, the relationship between poor sleep quality and risky substance use was mediated by executive dysfunction. While these cross-sectional relationships need to be further examined in longitudinal analyses, the results suggest that poor sleep quality and executive dysfunction may be viable preventive intervention targets to reduce adolescent substance use. Read full article.

Tervo-Clemmens B, Quach A, Luna B, Foran W, Chung T, DeBellis MD, Clark DB.(2017). Neural Correlates of Rewarded Response Inhibition in Youth at Risk for Problematic Alcohol Use.Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience 11:205. PMCID: PMC5675888

Risk for substance use disorder (SUD) is associated with poor response inhibition and heightened reward sensitivity. During adolescence, incentives improve performance on response inhibition tasks and increase recruitment of cortical control areas (Geier et al., 2010) associated with SUD (Chung et al., 2011). However, it is unknown whether incentives moderate the relationship between response inhibition and trait-level psychopathology and personality features of substance use risk. We examined these associations in the current project using a rewarded antisaccade (AS) task (Geier et al., 2010) in youth at risk for substance use. Participants were 116 adolescents and young adults (ages 12-21) from the University of Pittsburgh site of the National Consortium on Adolescent Neurodevelopment and Alcohol [NCANDA] study, with neuroimaging data collected at baseline and 1 year follow up visits. Building upon previous work using this task in normative developmental samples (Geier et al., 2010) and adolescents with SUD (Chung et al., 2011), we examined both trial-wise BOLD responses and those associated with individual task-epochs (cue presentation, response preparation, and response) and associated them with multiple substance use risk factors (externalizing and internalizing psychopathology, family history of substance use, and trait impulsivity). Results showed that externalizing psychopathology and high levels of trait impulsivity (positive urgency, SUPPS-P) were associated with general decreases in antisaccade performance. Accompanying this main effect of poor performance, positive urgency was associated with reduced recruitment of the frontal eye fields (FEF) and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) in both a priori regions of interest and at the voxelwise level. Consistent with previous work, monetary incentive improved antisaccade behavioral performance and was associated with increased activation in the striatum and cortical control areas. However, incentives did not moderate the association between response inhibition behavioral performance and any trait-level psychopathology and personality factor of substance use risk. Reward interactions were observed for BOLD responses at the task-epoch level, however, they were inconsistent across substance use risk types. The results from this study may suggest poor response inhibition and heightened reward sensitivity are not overlapping neurocognitive features of substance use risk. Alternatively, more subtle, common longitudinal processes might jointly explain reward sensitivity and response inhibition deficits in substance use risk. Read full article.

de Zambotti M, Rosas L, Colrain IM, Baker FC. (2017). The Sleep of the Ring: Comparison of the ŌURA Sleep Tracker Against Polysomnography.Behavioral Sleep Medicine. PMID: 28323455

Objective/Background: To evaluate the performance of a multisensor sleep-tracker (ŌURA ring) against polysomnography (PSG) in measuring sleep and sleep stages. Participants: Forty-one healthy adolescents and young adults (13 females; Age: 17.2 ± 2.4 years). Methods: Sleep data were recorded using the ŌURA ring and standard PSG on a single laboratory overnight. Metrics were compared using Bland-Altman plots and epoch-by-epoch (EBE) analysis. Results: Summary variables for sleep onset latency (SOL), total sleep time (TST), and wake after sleep onset (WASO) were not different between ŌURA ring and PSG. PSG-ŌURA discrepancies for WASO were greater in participants with more PSG-defined WASO (p < .001). Compared with PSG, ŌURA ring underestimated PSG N3 (~20 min) and overestimated PSG REM (~17 min; p < .05). PSG-ŌURA differences for TST and WASO lay within the ≤ 30 min a-priori-set clinically satisfactory ranges for 87.8% and 85.4% of the sample, respectively. From EBE analysis, ŌURA ring had a 96% sensitivity to detect sleep, and agreement of 65%, 51%, and 61%, in detecting “light sleep” (N1), “deep sleep” (N2 + N3), and REM sleep, respectively. Specificity in detecting wake was 48%. Similarly to PSG-N3 (p < .001), “deep sleep” detected with the ŌURA ring was negatively correlated with advancing age (p = .001). ŌURA ring correctly categorized 90.9%, 81.3%, and 92.9% into PSG-defined TST ranges of < 6 hr, 6–7 hr, > 7 hr, respectively. Conclusions: Multisensor sleep trackers, such as the ŌURA ring have the potential for detecting outcomes beyond binary sleep–wake using sources of information in addition to motion. While these first results could be viewed as promising, future development and validation are needed. Read full article.

Hasler BP, Franzen PL, de Zambotti M, Prouty D, Brown, SA, Tapert SF, Pfefferbaum A, Pohl KM, Sullivan EV, De Bellis MD, Nagel BJ, Baker FC, Colrain IM, Clark DB.(2017) Eveningness and Later Sleep Timing Are Associated with Greater Risk for Alcohol and Marijuana Use in Adolescence: Initial Findings from the National Consortium on Alcohol and Neurodevelopment in Adolescence Study. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 41(6):1154-1165. PMCID: PMC5488322

Background: Abundant cross-sectional evidence links eveningness (a preference for later sleep-wake timing) and increased alcohol and drug use among adolescents and young adults. However, longitudinal studies are needed to examine whether eveningness is a risk factor for subsequent alcohol and drug use, particularly during adolescence, which is marked by parallel peaks in eveningness and risk for the onset of alcohol use disorders. This study examined whether eveningness and other sleep characteristics were associated with concurrent or subsequent substance involvement in a longitudinal study of adolescents. Methods: Participants were 729 adolescents (368 females; age 12 to 21 years) in the National Consortium on Alcohol and Neurodevelopment in Adolescence study. Associations between the sleep variables (circadian preference, sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, sleep timing, and sleep duration) and 3 categorical substance variables (at-risk alcohol use, alcohol bingeing, and past-year marijuana use [y/n]) were examined using ordinal and logistic regression with baseline age, sex, race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and psychiatric problems as covariates. Results: At baseline, greater eveningness was associated with greater at-risk alcohol use, greater bingeing, and past-year use of marijuana. Later weekday and weekend bedtimes, but not weekday or weekend sleep duration, showed similar associations across the 3 substance outcomes at baseline. Greater baseline eveningness was also prospectively associated with greater bingeing and past-year use of marijuana at the 1-year follow-up, after covarying for baseline bingeing and marijuana use. Later baseline weekday and weekend bedtimes, and shorter baseline weekday sleep duration, were similarly associated with greater bingeing and past-year use of marijuana at the 1-year follow-up after covarying for baseline values. Conclusions: Findings suggest that eveningness and sleep timing may be under recognized risk factors and future areas of intervention for adolescent involvement in alcohol and marijuana that should be considered along with other previously identified sleep factors such as insomnia and insufficient sleep. Read full article.

Sullivan EV, Brumback T, Tapert SF, Prouty D, Fama R, Thompson WK, Brown SA, Cummins K, Colrain IM, Baker FC, Clark D, Chung T, De Bellis MD, Hooper SR, Nagel BJ, Nichols BN, Chu W, Kwon D, Pohl KM, Pfefferbaum A. (2017). Effects of prior testing lasting a full year in NCANDA adolescents: Contributions from age, sex, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, site, family history of alcohol or drug abuse, and baseline performance. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience. 24:72-83. PMID 28421617

Longitudinal study provides a robust method for tracking developmental trajectories. Yet inherent problems of retesting pose challenges in distinguishing biological developmental change from prior testing experience. We examined factors potentially influencing change scores on 16 neuropsychological test composites over 1 year in 568 adolescents in the National Consortium on Alcohol and NeuroDevelopment in Adolescence (NCANDA) project. The twice-minus-once-tested method revealed that performance gain was mainly attributable to testing experience (practice) with little contribution from predicted developmental effects. Group mean practice slopes for 13 composites indicated that 60% to∼100% variance was attributable to test experience; General Ability accuracy showed the least practice effect (29%). Lower baseline performance, especially in younger participants, was a strong predictor of greater gain. Contributions from age, sex, ethnicity, examination site, socioeconomic status, or family history of alcohol/ substance abuse were nil to small, even where statistically significant. Recognizing that a substantial proportion of change in longitudinal testing, even over 1-year, is attributable to testing experience indicates caution against assuming that performance gain observed during periods of maturation necessarily reflects development. Estimates of testing experience, a form of learning, may be a relevant metric for detecting interim influences, such as alcohol use or traumatic episodes, on behavior. Read full article.

Sullivan EV, Lane B, Kwon D, Meloy MJ, Tapert SF, Brown SA, Colrain IM, Baker FC, De Bellis MD, Clark DB, Nagel BJ, Pohl KM, Pfefferbaum A. (2017). Structural brain anomalies in healthy adolescents in the NCANDA cohort: Relation to neuropsychological test performance, sex, and ethnicity. Brain Imaging and Behavior. 11:1302-1315 . PMID: 27722828

Nagel BJ, Pohl KM, Pfefferbaum A (2017).Structural brain anomalies in healthy adolescents in the NCANDA cohort: Relation to neuropsychological test performance, sex, and ethnicity. Brain Imaging and Behavior 11(5): 1302-1315. PMCID: PMC5656437 Structural MRI of volunteers deemed "normal" following clinical interview provides a window into normal brain developmental morphology but also reveals unexpected dysmorphology, commonly known as "incidental findings." Although unanticipated, these anatomical findings raise questions regarding possible treatment that could even ultimately require neurosurgical intervention, which itself carries significant risk but may not be indicated if the anomaly is nonprogressive or of no functional consequence. Neuroradiological readings of 833 structural MRI from the National Consortium on Alcohol and NeuroDevelopment in Adolescence (NCANDA) cohort found an 11.8 % incidence of brain structural anomalies, represented proportionately across the five collection sites and ethnic groups. Anomalies included 26 mega cisterna magna, 15 subarachnoid cysts, 12 pineal cysts, 12 white matter dysmorphologies, 5 tonsillar ectopias, 5 prominent perivascular spaces, 5 gray matter heterotopias, 4 pituitary masses, 4 excessively large or asymmetrical ventricles, 4 cavum septum pellucidum, 3 developmental venous anomalies, 1 exceptionally large midsagittal vein, and single cases requiring clinical followup: cranio-cervical junction stenosis, parietal cortical mass, and Chiari I malformation. A case of possible demyelinating disorder (e.g., neuromyelitis optica or multiple sclerosis) newly emerged at the 1-year NCANDA followup, requiring clinical referral. Comparing test performance of the 98 anomalous cases with 619 anomaly-free no-to-low alcohol consuming adolescents revealed significantly lower scores on speed measures of attention and motor functions; these differences were not attributed to any one anomaly subgroup. Further, we devised an automated approach for quantifying posterior fossa CSF volumes for detection of mega cisterna magna, which represented 26.5 % of clinically identified anomalies. Automated quantification fit a Gaussian distribution with a rightward skew. Using a 3SD cut-off, quantification identified 22 of the 26 clinically-identified cases, indicating that cases with percent of CSF in the posterior-inferior-middle aspect of the posterior fossa ≥3SD merit further review, and support complementing clinical readings with objective quantitative analysis. Discovery of asymptomatic brain structural anomalies, even when no clinical action is indicated, can be disconcerting to the individual and responsible family members, raising a disclosure dilemma: refrain from relating the incidental findings to avoid unnecessary alarm or anxiety; or alternatively, relate the neuroradiological findings as "normal variants" to the study volunteers and family, thereby equipping them with knowledge for the future should they have the occasion for a brain scan following an illness or accident that the incidental findings predated the later event. Read full article.

2016

Baker FC, Willoughby AR, de Zambotti M, Franzen PL, Prouty D, Javitz H, Hasler B, Clark DB, Colrain IM. (2016). Age-related differences in sleep architecture and electroencephalogram in adolescents in the NCANDA sample. Sleep. 39:1429-39. PMCID: PMC4909625

Study Objectives: To investigate age-related differences in polysomnographic and sleep electroencephalographic (EEG) measures, considering sex, pubertal stage, ethnicity, and scalp topography in a large group of adolescents in the National Consortium on Alcohol and NeuroDevelopment in Adolescence (NCANDA). Methods: Following an adaptation/clinical screening night, 141 healthy adolescents (12-21 y, 64 girls) had polysomnographic recordings, from which sleep staging and EEG measures were derived. The setting was the SRI International Human Sleep Laboratory and University of Pittsburgh Pediatric Sleep Laboratory. Results: Older age was associated with a lower percentage of N3 sleep, accompanied by higher percentages of N2, N1, and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Older boys compared with younger boys had more frequent awakenings and wakefulness after sleep onset, effects that were absent in girls. Delta (0.3-4 Hz) EEG power in nonrapid eye movement NREM sleep was lower in older than younger adolescents at all electrode sites, with steeper slopes of decline over the occipital scalp. EEG power in higher frequency bands was also lower in older adolescents than younger adolescents, with equal effects across electrodes. Percent delta power in the first NREM period was similar across age. African Americans had lower EEG power across frequency bands (delta to sigma) compared with Caucasians. Finally, replacing age with pubertal status in the models showed similar relationships. Conclusions: Substantial differences in sleep architecture and EEG were evident across adolescence in this large group, with sex modifying some relationships. Establishment and follow-up of this cohort allows the investigation of sleep EEG-brain structural relationships and the effect of behaviors, such as alcohol and substance use, on sleep EEG maturation. Read full article.

de Zambotti M, Baker FC, Willoughby AR, Godino JG, Wing D, Patrick K, Colrain IM. (2016). Measures of sleep and cardiac functioning during sleep using a multi-sensory commercially-available wristband in adolescents. Physiology & Behavior 158:143-9. PMCID: PMC5498752

To validate measures of sleep and heart rate (HR) during sleep generated by a commercially-available activity tracker against those derived from polysomnography (PSG) in healthy adolescents. Sleep data were concurrently recorded using FitbitChargeHR™ and PSG, including electrocardiography (ECG), during an overnight laboratory sleep recording in 32 healthy adolescents (15 females; age, mean±SD: 17.3±2.5years). Sleep and HR measures were compared between FitbitChargeHR™ and PSG using paired t-tests and Bland-Altman plots. Epoch-by-epoch analysis showed that FitbitChargeHR™ had high overall accuracy (91%), high sensitivity (97%) in detecting sleep, and poor specificity (42%) in detecting wake on a min-to-min basis. On average, FitbitChargeHR™ significantly but negligibly overestimated total sleep time by 8min and sleep efficiency by 1.8%, and underestimated wake after sleep onset by 5.6min (p<0.05). Within FitbitChargeHR™ epochs of sleep, the average HR was 59.3±7.5bpm, which was significantly but negligibly lower than that calculated from ECG (60.2±7.6bpm, p<0.001), with no change in mean discrepancies throughout the night. FitbitChargeHR™ showed good agreement with PSG and ECG in measuring sleep and HR during sleep, supporting its use in assessing sleep and cardiac function in healthy adolescents. Further validation is needed to assess its reliability over prolonged periods of time in ecological settings and in clinical populations. Read full article.

de Zambotti M, Willoughby AR, Franzen PL, Clark DB, Baker FC, Colrain IM. (2016) K-complexes: Interaction between the central and autonomic nervous systems during sleep. Sleep. 39:1129-37. PMCID: PMC4835312

Study Objectives: To investigate the relationship between K-complexes (KCs) and cardiac functioning. Methods: Forty healthy adolescents aged 16-22 y (19 females) participated in the study. Heart rate (HR) fluctuations associated with spontaneous and evoked KCs were investigated on two nights, one with (event-related potential night) and one without auditory tones presented across the night. Results: There was a clear biphasic cardiac response to evoked and spontaneous KCs, with an initial acceleration in HR followed by a deceleration (P < 0.001). HR acceleration occurred immediately to KCs in response to tones presented in the first third of the interbeat interval, but was delayed a beat when the tone occurred later in the cardiac cycle (P < 0.05). Sex differences were also evident. Pretone baseline HR was higher, and the magnitude of the HR response was blunted and delayed, in female compared to male adolescents (P < 0.001). Also, pretone baseline HR was lower when a tone elicited a KC compared to when it did not (P < 0.001), suggesting that KCs are possibly more likely to be elicited by external stimuli in states of reduced cardiac activation. Conclusions: The strict dependency observed between KCs and cardiac control indicates a potential role of KCs in modulating the cardiovascular system during sleep. Sex differences in the KC-cardiac response indicate the sensitivity of this measure in capturing sex differences in cardiac regulatory physiology. Read full article.

Pfefferbaum A, Rohlfing T, Pohl KM, Lane B, Chu W, Kwon D, Brown SA, Tapert SF, Cummins K, Thompson WK, Brumback T, Meloy MJ, Jernigan TJ, Dale A, Colrain IM, Baker FC, Prouty D, De Bellis MD, Voyvodic JT, Clark DB, Luna B, Chung T, Nagel BJ, Sullivan EV. (2016). Adolescent development of cortical and white matter structure in the NCANDA sample: Role of sex, ethnicity, puberty, and alcohol drinking. Cerebral Cortex. 26:4101-21. PMCID: PMC5027999

Brain structural development continues throughout adolescence, when experimentation with alcohol is often initiated. To parse contributions from biological and environmental factors on neurodevelopment, this study used baseline National Consortium on Alcohol and NeuroDevelopment in Adolescence (NCANDA) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, acquired in 674 adolescents meeting no/low alcohol or drug use criteria and 134 adolescents exceeding criteria. Spatial integrity of images across the 5 recruitment sites was assured by morphological scaling using Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative phantom-derived volume scalar metrics. Clinical MRI readings identified structural anomalies in 11.4%. Cortical volume and thickness were smaller and white matter volumes were larger in older than in younger adolescents. Effects of sex (male > female) and ethnicity (majority > minority) were significant for volume and surface but minimal for cortical thickness. Adjusting volume and area for supratentorial volume attenuated or removed sex and ethnicity effects. That cortical thickness showed age-related decline and was unrelated to supratentorial volume is consistent with the radial unit hypothesis, suggesting a universal neural development characteristic robust to sex and ethnicity. Comparison of NCANDA with PING data revealed similar but flatter, age-related declines in cortical volumes and thickness. Smaller, thinner frontal, and temporal cortices in the exceeds-criteria than no/low-drinking group suggested untoward effects of excessive alcohol consumption on brain structural development. Read full article.

Pohl KM, Sullivan EV, Rohlfing T, Chu W, Kwon D, Nichols BN, Zhang Y, Brown SA, Tapert SF, Cummins K, Thompson WK, Brumback T, Colrain IM, Baker FC, Prouty D, De Bellis MD, Voyvodic JT, Clark DB, Schrida C, Nagel BJ, Pfefferbaum A. (2016). Harmonizing DTI measurements across scanners to examine the development of white matter microstructure in 803 adolescents of the NCANDA study. NeuroImage. 130:194-213. PMCID: PMC4808415

Neurodevelopment continues through adolescence, with notable maturation of white matter tracts comprising regional fiber systems progressing at different rates. To identify factors that could contribute to regional differences in white matter microstructure development, large samples of youth spanning adolescence to young adulthood are essential to parse these factors. Recruitment of adequate samples generally relies on multi-site consortia but comes with the challenge of merging data acquired on different platforms. In the current study, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data were acquired on GE and Siemens systems through the National Consortium on Alcohol and NeuroDevelopment in Adolescence (NCANDA), a multi-site study designed to track the trajectories of regional brain development during a time of high risk for initiating alcohol consumption. This cross-sectional analysis reports baseline Tract-Based Spatial Statistic (TBSS) of regional fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity(MD), axial diffusivity (L1), and radial diffusivity (LT) from the five consortium sites on 671 adolescents who met no/low alcohol or drug consumption criteria and 132 adolescents with a history of exceeding consumption criteria. Harmonization of DTI metrics across manufacturers entailed the use of human-phantom data, acquired multiple times on each of three non-NCANDA participants at each site's MR system, to determine a manufacturer-specific correction factor. Application of the correction factor derived from human phantom data measured on MR systems from different manufacturers reduced the standard deviation of the DTI metrics for FA by almost a half, enabling harmonization of data that would have otherwise carried systematic error. Permutation testing supported the hypothesis of higher FA and lower diffusivity measures in older adolescents and indicated that, overall, the FA, MD, and L1 of the boys were higher than those of the girls, suggesting continued microstructural development notable in the boys. The contribution of demographic and clinical differences to DTI metrics was assessed with General Additive Models (GAM) testing for age, sex, and ethnicity differences in regional skeleton mean values. The results supported the primary study hypothesis that FA skeleton mean values in the no/low-drinking group were highest at different ages. When differences in intracranial volume were covaried, FA skeleton mean reached a maximum at younger ages in girls than boys and varied in magnitude with ethnicity. Our results, however, did not support the hypothesis that youth who exceeded exposure criteria would have lower FA or higher diffusivity measures than the no/low-drinking group; detecting the effects of excessive alcohol consumption during adolescence on DTI metrics may require longitudinal study. Read full article.

Sullivan EV, Brumback T, Tapert SF, Fama R, Prouty D, Brown SA, Cummins K, Thompson WK, Colrain IM, Baker FC, De Bellis MD, Hooper SR, Clark DB, Chung T, Nagel BJ, Nichols BN, Rohlfing T, Chu W, Pohl KM, Pfefferbaum A. (2016) Cognitive, emotion control, and motor performance of adolescents in the NCANDA study: Contributions from alcohol consumption, age, sex, ethnicity, and family history of addiction. Neuropsychology. 30:449-73. PMCID: PMC4840074

Objective: To investigate development of cognitive and motor functions in healthy adolescents and to explore whether hazardous drinking affects the normal developmental course of those functions. Method: Participants were 831 adolescents recruited across 5 United States sites of the National Consortium on Alcohol and NeuroDevelopment in Adolescence 692 met criteria for no/low alcohol exposure, and 139 exceeded drinking thresholds. Cross-sectional, baseline data were collected with computerized and traditional neuropsychological tests assessing 8 functional domains expressed as composite scores. General additive modeling evaluated factors potentially modulating performance (age, sex, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and pubertal developmental stage). Results: Older no/low-drinking participants achieved better scores than younger ones on 5 accuracy composites (general ability, abstraction, attention, emotion, and balance). Speeded responses for attention, motor speed, and general ability were sensitive to age and pubertal development. The exceeds-threshold group (accounting for age, sex, and other demographic factors) performed significantly below the no/low-drinking group on balance accuracy and on general ability, attention, episodic memory, emotion, and motor speed scores and showed evidence for faster speed at the expense of accuracy. Delay Discounting performance was consistent with poor impulse control in the younger no/low drinkers and in exceeds-threshold drinkers regardless of age. Conclusions: Higher achievement with older age and pubertal stage in general ability, abstraction, attention, emotion, and balance suggests continued functional development through adolescence, possibly supported by concurrently maturing frontal, limbic, and cerebellar brain systems. Determination of whether low scores by the exceeds-threshold group resulted from drinking or from other preexisting factors requires longitudinal study. Read full article.

2015

Brown SA, Brumback T, Tomlinson K, Cummins K, Thompson WK, Nagel BJ, De Bellis MD, Hooper SR, Clark DB, Chung T, Hasler BP, Colrain IM, Baker FB, Prouty D, Pfefferbaum A, Sullivan EV, Pohl KM, Rohlfing T, Nichols BN, Chu W & Tapert SF. (2015). The National Consortium on Alcohol and NeuroDevelopment in Adolescence (NCANDA): A multi-site study of adolescent development and substance use. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs. 76:895-908. PMCID: PMC4712659

Objective: During adolescence, neurobiological maturation occurs concurrently with social and interpersonal changes, including the initiation of alcohol and other substance use. The National Consortium on Alcohol and NeuroDevelopment in Adolescence (NCANDA) is designed to disentangle the complex relationships between onset, escalation, and desistance of alcohol use and changes in neurocognitive functioning and neuromaturation. Method: A sample of 831 youth, ages 12–21 years, was recruited at five sites across the United States, oversampling those at risk for alcohol use problems. Most (83%) had limited or no history of alcohol or other drug use, and a smaller portion (17%) exceeded drinking thresholds. A comprehensive assessment of biological development, family background, psychiatric symptomatology ,and neuropsychological functioning—in addition to anatomical, diffusion, and functional brain magnetic resonance imaging—was completed at baseline. Results: The NCANDA sample of youth is nationally representative of sex and racial/ethnic groups. More than 50% have at least one risk characteristic for subsequent heavy drinking (e.g., family history ,internalizing or externalizing symptoms). As expected, those who exceeded drinking thresholds (n= 139) differ from those who did not(n=692) on identified factors associated with early alcohol use and problems. Conclusions: NCANDA successfully recruited a large sample of adolescents and comprehensively assessed psychosocial functioning across multiple domains. Based on the sample’s risk profile, NCANDA is well positioned to capture the transition into drinking and alcohol problems in a large portion of the cohort, as well as to help disentangle the associations between alcohol use, neurobiological maturation, and neurocognitive development and functioning. Read full article.

de Zambotti M, Baker FC, Colrain IM. (2015). Validation of sleep-tracking technology compared with polysomnography in adolescents. Sleep. 38:1461-8. PMCID: PMC4531414

Study Objectives: To evaluate the accuracy in measuring nighttime sleep of a fitness tracker (Jawbone UP) compared to polysomnography (PSG). Design: Jawbone UP and PSG data were simultaneously collected from adolescents during an overnight laboratory recording. Agreements between Jawbone UP and PSG sleep outcomes were analyzed using paired t tests and Bland-Altman plots. Multiple regressions were used to investigate which PSG sleep measures predicted Jawbone UP "Sound sleep" and "Light sleep." Setting: SRI International Human Sleep Laboratory. Participants: Sixty-five healthy adolescents (28 females, mean age ± standard deviation [SD]: 15.8 ± 2.5 y). Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Outcomes showed good agreements between Jawbone UP and PSG for total sleep time (mean differences ± SD: -10.0 ± 20.5 min), sleep efficiency (mean differences ± SD: -1.9 ± 4.2 %), and wake after sleep onset (WASO) (mean differences ± SD: 10.6 ± 14.7 min). Overall, Jawbone UP overestimated PSG total sleep time and sleep efficiency and underestimated WASO but differences were small and, on average, did not exceed clinically meaningful cutoffs of > 30 min for total sleep time and > 5% for sleep efficiency. Multiple regression models showed that Jawbone UP "Sound sleep" measure was predicted by PSG time in N2 (β = 0.25), time in rapid eye movement (β = 0.29), and arousal index (β = -0.34). Jawbone UP "Light sleep" measure was predicted by PSG time in N2 (β = 0.48), time in N3 (β = 0.49), arousal index (β = 0.38) and awakening index (β = 0.28). Jawbone UP showed a progression from slight overestimation to underestimation of total sleep time and sleep efficiency with advancing age. All relationships were similar in boys and girls. Conclusions: Jawbone UP shows good agreement with polysomnography in measures of total sleep time and wake after sleep onset in adolescent boys and girls. Further validation is needed in other age groups and clinical populations before advocating use of these inexpensive and easy-to-use devices in clinical sleep medicine and research. Read full article.

Nichols BN & Pohl KM. (2015). Neuroinformatics Software Applications Supporting Electronic Data Capture, Management, and Sharing for the Neuroimaging Community. Neuropsychology Review 25:356-68. PMCID: PMC5400666

Accelerating insight into the relation between brain and behavior entails conducting small and large-scale research endeavors that lead to reproducible results. Consensus is emerging between funding agencies, publishers, and the research community that data sharing is a fundamental requirement to ensure all such endeavors foster data reuse and fuel reproducible discoveries. Funding agency and publisher man-dates to share data are bolstered by a growing number of data sharing efforts that demonstrate how information technologies can enable meaningful data reuse. Neuroinformatics evaluates scientific needs and develops solutions to facilitate the use of data across the cognitive and neurosciences. For example, electronic data capture and management tools designed to facilitate human neurocognitive research can decrease the set-up time of studies, improve quality control, and streamline the process of harmonizing, curating, and sharing data across data repositories. In this article we outline the advantages and disadvantages of adopting software applications that support these features by reviewing the tools available and then presenting two contrasting neuroimaging study scenarios in the context of conducting a cross-sectional and a multisite longitudinal study. Read full article.

2014

Li W, Wu B, Batrachenko A, Bancroft-Wu V, Morey RA, Shashi V, Langkammer C, De Bellis MD, Ropele S, Song AW, Liu C. (2014). Differential developmental trajectories of magnetic susceptibility in human brain gray and white matter over the lifespan. Human Brain Mapping 35:2698-713. PMCID: PMC3954958

As indicated by several recent studies, magnetic susceptibility of the brain is influenced mainly by myelin in the white matter and by iron deposits in the deep nuclei. Myelination and iron deposition in the brain evolve both spatially and temporally. This evolution reflects an important characteristic of normal brain development and ageing. In this study, we assessed the changes of regional susceptibility in the human brain in vivo by examining the developmental and ageing process from 1 to 83 years of age. The evolution of magnetic susceptibility over this lifespan was found to display differential trajectories between the gray and the white matter. In both cortical and subcortical white matter, an initial decrease followed by a subsequent increase in magnetic susceptibility was observed, which could be fitted by a Poisson curve. In the gray matter, including the cortical gray matter and the iron-rich deep nuclei, magnetic susceptibility displayed a monotonic increase that can be described by an exponential growth. The rate of change varied according to functional and anatomical regions of the brain. For the brain nuclei, the age-related changes of susceptibility were in good agreement with the findings from R2* measurement. Our results suggest that magnetic susceptibility may provide valuable information regarding the spatial and temporal patterns of brain myelination and iron deposition during brain maturation and ageing. Read full article.

Rohlfing T, Cummins K, Henthorn T, Chu W, Nichols BN. (2014). N-CANDA data integration: Anatomy of an asynchronous infrastructure for multi-site, multi-instrument longitudinal data capture. Journal of American Medical Informatics Association 21:758-62. PMCID: PMC4078281

The infrastructure for data collection implemented by the National Consortium on Alcohol and NeuroDevelopment in Adolescence (N-CANDA) for data collection comprises several innovative features: (a) secure, asynchronous transfer and persistent storage of collected data via a revision control system; (b) two-stage import into a longitudinal database; and (c) use of a script-controlled web browser for data retrieval from a third-party, web based neuropsychological test battery. The asynchronous operation of data transmission and import is of particular benefit, as it has allowed the consortium sites to begin data collection before the receiving database infrastructure had been deployed. Records were collected within 86 days of funding, 35 days after finalizing the collected instruments. Final instruments were added to the database import 225 days after instrument selection, with up to 173 records already collected at that time. Thus, the concepts implemented in N-CANDA’s data collection system helped reduce project start-up time by several months. Read full article.

PRESENTATIONS RESULTING FROM NCANDA DATA


Harmonization of Multimodal Neuroimaging to Examine Age, Sex, and Alcohol-Related Changes in Brain Structure Through Adolescence and Young Adulthood

RSA 2017
June 26, 2017
Denver, CO

Adolf Pfefferbaum
SRI International & Stanford University

» View Full Presentation (PDF)

Harnessing the Power of Mobile Technology to Monitor Alcohol Use and Behaviors in Daily Life

RSA 2017
June 26, 2017
Denver, CO

Ty Brumback
UC San Diego

» View Full Presentation (PDF)

The National Consortium on Alcohol and Neurodevelopment in Adolescence (NCANDA): Clinical & Neuropsychological Assessment Battery

RSA 2017
June 26, 2017
Denver, CO

Susan F. Tapert
UC San Diego

» View Full Presentation (PDF)

Curating, Releasing, and Access NCANDA Data

RSA 2017
June 26, 2017
Denver, CO

Killian M. Pohl
SRI International

» View Full Presentation (PDF)

Executive Functioning Deficits and Problem Drinking

APA 2017
May 24, 2017
San Diego, CA

Duncan B. Clark
University of Pittsburgh

» View Full Presentation (PDF)

Sleep in the NCANDA Cohort

APA 2017
May 24, 2017
San Diego, CA

Fiona C. Baker
SRI International & University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa

» View Full Presentation (PDF)

Functional Brain Networks Related to Sex, Age, and Alcohol Use in Adolescence: Resting-State and Task-Activated fMRI Findings from NCANDA

APA 2017
May 24, 2017
San Diego, CA

Eva M. Muller-Oehring
SRI International & Stanford University

» View Full Presentation (PDF)

Use of Multimodal Neuroimaging Techniques to Examine Age, Sex, and Alcohol-Related Changes in Brain Structure Through Adolescence and Young Adulthood

APA 2017
May 24, 2017
San Diego, CA

Adolf Pfefferbaum & Edith V. Sullivan
SRI International & Stanford University

» View Full Presentation (PDF)

NCANDA-2 Innovations in Research Design and Assessments

APA 2017
May 24, 2017
San Diego, CA

Susan Tapert & Ty Brumback
UC San Diego

» View Full Presentation (PDF)

NATIONAL CONSORTIUM ON ALCOHOL & NEURODEVELOPMENT IN ADOLESCENCE

APA 2017
May 24, 2017
San Diego, CA

Sandra A. Brown
UC San Diego

» View Full Presentation (PDF)

National Consortium on Alcohol and Neurodevelopment in Adolescence (NCANDA): Adolescent Brain Structure and Function Linked to Risk for Heavy Drinking

RSA 2016
June 26, 2016
New Orleans, LA

Bonnie Nagel
Oregon Health & Science University

» View Full Presentation (PDF)

Sleep Composition and Sleep EEG: Age, Sex, Ethnicity and Alcohol Effects in NCANDA

RSA 2016
June 26, 2016
New Orleans, LA

Ian M. Colrain
SRI International

» View Full Presentation (PDF)

Executive functioning and risks for alcohol use disorder: Baseline results from NCANDA

RSA 2016
June 26, 2016
New Orleans, LA

Duncan B. Clark
University of Pittsburgh

» View Full Presentation (PDF)

Adolescent Brain Function in Relation to Trauma and PTSD

RSA 2016
June 26, 2016
New Orleans, LA

Michael DeBellis and Kate Nooner
Duke University

» View Full Presentation (PDF)

Functional Brain Networks Related to Sex, Age, and Alcohol in Adolescence: Initial Resting-State fMRI Findings from NCANDA

RSA 2016
June 26, 2016
New Orleans, LA

Eva M. Müller-Oehring
Stanford University

» View Full Presentation (PDF)

NCANDA: Testing the Boundaries

RSA 2016
June 26, 2016
New Orleans, LA

Sara J. Nixon
University of Florida

» View Full Presentation (PDF)

THE NATIONAL CONSORTIUM ON ALCOHOL AND NEURODEVELOPMENT IN ADOLESCENCE (NCANDA): A FRAMEWORK SUPPORTING NEUROIMAGING DATA INTEGRATION AND ANALYSIS

NEUROINFORMATICS 2015
August 20, 2015
Cairns, Australia

Nolan Nichols, WeiWei Chu, & Kilian Pohl
Stanford University & SRI International

» View Full Abstract (PDF)

» View Full Presentation (PDF)

NCANDA: CHARACTERIZATION OF THE SAMPLE

RSA 2015
June 22, 2015
San Antonio, Texas

Susan Tapert
UC San Diego

» View Full Presentation (PDF)

AGE & SEX DIFFERENCES IN COGNITIVE, MOTOR, & SLEEP INDICES: INITIAL FINDINGS OF THE NATIONAL CONSORTIUM ON ALCOHOL & NEURODEVELOPMENT IN ADOLESCENCE

RSA 2015
June 22, 2015
San Antonio, Texas

Edith Sullivan & Fiona Baker
Stanford University & SRI International

» View Full Presentation (PDF)

DIFFERENCES IN ADOLESCENT CORTEX RELATED TO AGE AND SEX: INITIAL FINDINGS FROM THE NATIONAL CONSORTIUM ON ALCOHOL & NEURODEVELOPMENT IN ADOLESCENCE

RSA 2015
June 22, 2015
San Antonio, Texas

Adolf Pfefferbaum
Stanford University & SRI International

» View Full Presentation (PDF)

AGE-RELATED DIFFERENCES IN ADOLESCENT BRAIN MICROSTRUCTURE: INITIAL FINDINGS FROM NATIONAL CONSORTIUM ON ALCOHOL & NEURODEVELOPMENT IN ADOLESCENCE

RSA 2015
June 22, 2015
San Antonio, Texas

Kilian M. Pohl
Stanford University & SRI International

» View Full Presentation (PDF)

NCANDA: BASELINE FINDINGS DISCUSSION

RSA 2015
June 22, 2015
San Antonio, Texas

Sandra A. Brown
UC San Diego

» View Full Presentation (PDF)

Machine Learning for MRI Phenotype Detection

RSA 2014
June 2014
Seattle Washington

Kilian Pohl, Ph.D.
SRI

» View Full Presentation (PDF)

NCANDA Introduction Presentation

RSA 2013
June 24, 2013
Orlando Florida

Sandra Brown, Ph.D.
UC San Diego

» View Full Presentation (PDF)

Consortium on Alcohol and Neurodevelopment in Adolescence: The Foundational Research

RSA 2013
June 24, 2013
Orlando Florida

Antonio Noronha, Ph.D.
Division of Neuroscience & Behavior

» View Full Presentation (PDF)

Insights into the developing brain using the sleep EEG

RSA 2013
June 24, 2013
Orlando Florida

Fiona C. Baker, Ph.D.
SRI International

» View Full Presentation (PDF)

Adolescent Substance Use Disorders, Psychological Regulation, and the Frontoparietal Network

RSA 2013
June 24, 2013
Orlando Florida

Duncan Clark M.D. Ph.D.
University of Pittsburgh

» View Full Presentation (PDF)

Using Functional Connectivity to Identify Risk For and Consequences of Alcohol Use During Adolescence

RSA 2013
June 24, 2013
Orlando Florida

Bonnie J. Nagel, Ph.D.
Oregon Health & Science University

» View Full Presentation (PDF)

Early Abstinence-Related Improvements Following Adolescent Heavy Episodic Drinking

RSA 2013
June 24, 2013
Orlando Florida

Susan Tapert, Ph.D.
UC San Diego

» View Full Presentation (PDF)

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